Research Papers

Trial for Monitoring the Water Temperature Utilizing the Frequency Dependence of Reflection Coefficient of Ultrasound Passing Through Thin Layer

[+] Author and Article Information
Hironori Tohmyoh

Department of Finemechanics,
Tohoku University,
Aoba 6-6-01, Aramaki, Aoba-ku,
Sendai 980-8579, Japan
e-mail: tohmyoh@ism.mech.tohoku.ac.jp

Shu Terashima

Department of Finemechanics,
Tohoku University,
Aoba 6-6-01, Aramaki, Aoba-ku,
Sendai 980-8579, Japan

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received August 13, 2018; final manuscript received February 9, 2019; published online March 25, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Fabrizio Ricci.

ASME J Nondestructive Evaluation 2(2), 021001 (Mar 25, 2019) (6 pages) Paper No: NDE-18-1030; doi: 10.1115/1.4042871 History: Received August 13, 2018; Accepted February 12, 2019

This paper describes a new concept to monitor the temperature of water utilizing the acoustic resonance, which occurs when ultrasound passes through a thin layer. In the ultrasonic transmission system that comprises of the reflection plate, thin film, and water, the reflection coefficient of the ultrasound at the plate/film/water interface depends on the frequency and takes its minimum value at the resonant frequency. Notably, this is closely related to the acoustic impedance of the water; moreover, it is a known fact that the acoustic impedance of the water demonstrates temperature dependence. Against this background, the present study aims to develop a technique in order to monitor the temperature of water utilizing the aforementioned correlation between the reflection coefficient and water temperature. First, a theoretical model was developed to determine the acoustic impedance of water from the difference in the amplitude spectra of echoes reflected at the back of the plate in the cases both with and without the film. It was found that the ratio of the amplitude spectrum of the echo recorded in the case with the film to that in the case without the film clearly decreased with a drop in water temperature. From this, we obtained the equation for determining water temperature experimentally. Finally, the temperature of water, which was brought down by air or ice cooling, was monitored by the proposed method. It was found that the behavior of temperature determined by the proposed method was congruent with that which was measured by a thermocouple.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Berry, K. H., 1979, “NPL-75: A Low Temperature Gas Thermometry Scale From 2.6 K to 27.1 K,” Metrologia, 15, pp. 89–115. [CrossRef]
Kemp, R. C., Kemp, W. R. G., and Besley, L. M., 1986, “A Determination of Thermodynamic Temperatures and Measurements of the Second Virial Coefficient of 4He Between 13.81 K and 287 K Using a Constant-Volume Gas Thermometer,” Metrologia, 23, pp. 61–86. [CrossRef]
Rodríguez, H., Williams, M., Wilkes, J. S., and Rogers, R. D., 2008, “Ionic Liquids for Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers,” Green Chem., 10, pp. 501–507. [CrossRef]
Bentley, R. E., 1998, “The Use of Elemental Thermocouples in High-Temperature Precision Thermometry,” Measurement, 23, pp. 35–46. [CrossRef]
Krishnan, S., Kumfer, B. M., Wu, W., Li, J., Nehorai, A., and Axelbaum, R. L., 2015, “An Approach to Thermocouple Measurements That Reduces Uncertainties in High-Temperature Environments,” Energy Fuels, 29, pp. 3446–3455. [CrossRef]
Siukonen, S. E., Daimon, T., and Tohmyoh, H., 2016, “Multi-Layered Microwire With a Bi-Metal Tip for Thermoelectric Applications,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 107, pp. 747–749. [CrossRef]
Xumo, L., Jinde, Z., Jinrong, S., and Deming, C., 1982, “A New High-Temperature Platinum Resistance Thermometer,” Metrologia, 18, pp. 203–208. [CrossRef]
Batagelj, V., Bojkovski, J., and Drnovšek, J., 2003, “Methods of Reducing the Uncertainty of the Self-Heating Correction of a Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometer in Temperature Measurements of the Highest Accuracy,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 14, pp. 2151–2158. [CrossRef]
Allison, S. W., and Gillies, G. T., 1997, “Remote Thermometry With Thermographic Phosphors: Instrumentation and Applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum., 68, pp. 2615–2650. [CrossRef]
Corsi, C., 2010, “History Highlights and Future Trends of Infrared Sensors,” J. Mod. Optics, 57, pp. 1663–1686. [CrossRef]
Debasu, M. L., Ananias, D., Pastoriza-Santos, I., Liz-Marzán, L. M., Rocha, J., and Carlos, L. D., 2013, “All-in-One Optical Heater-Thermometer Nanoplatform Operative From 300 to 2000K Based on Er3+ Emission and Blackbody Radiation,” Adv. Mater., 25, pp. 4868–4874. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Huang, K. N., Huang, C. F., Li, Y. C., and Young, M. S., 2002, “High Precision, Fast Ultrasonic Thermometer Based on Measurement of the Speed of Sound in Air,” Rev. Sci. Instrum., 73, pp. 4022–4027. [CrossRef]
Afaneh, A., Alzebda, S., Ivchenko, V., and Kalashnikov, A. N., 2011, “Ultrasonic Measurements of Temperature in Aqueous Solutions: Why and How,” Phys. Res. Int., 2011, 156396. [CrossRef]
Aoki, S., and Ihara, I., 2015, “Feasibility Study on Ultrasonic In-Situ Measurement of Friction Surface Temperature,” Mech. Eng. J., 2, 14-00431. [CrossRef]
Brekhovskikh, L. M., 1960, Waves in Layered Media, Academic Press, New York.
Kushibiki, J., Maehara, H., and Chubachi, N., 1982, “Measurements of Acoustic Properties for Thin Films,” J. Appl. Phys., 53, pp. 5509–5513. [CrossRef]
Kinra, V. K., Jaminet, P. T., Zhu, C., and Iyer, V. R., 1994, “Simultaneous Measurement of the Acoustical Properties of a Thin-Layered Medium: The Inverse Problem,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 95, pp. 3059–3074. [CrossRef]
Dwyer-Joyce, R. S., Drinkwater, B. W., and Donohoe, C. J., 2003, “The Measurement of Lubricant–Film Thickness Using Ultrasound,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. A, 459, pp. 957–976. [CrossRef]
Tohmyoh, H., Imaizumi, T., and Saka, M., 2006, “Acoustic Resonant Spectroscopy for Characterization of Thin Polymer Films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum., 77, 104901. [CrossRef]
Tohmyoh, H., Sunaga, T., and Suzuki, M., 2012, “Simultaneous Observation of Acoustic Resonance Phenomena at Both Surfaces of a Plate Coated With Thin Layers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum., 83, 034903. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Tohmyoh, H., and Sakamoto, Y., 2015, “Determination of Acoustic Properties of Thin Polymer Films Utilizing the Frequency Dependence of the Reflection Coefficient of Ultrasound,” Rev. Sci. Instrum., 86, 114901. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Del Grosso, V. A., and Mader, C. W., 1972, “Speed of Sound in Pure Water,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 52, pp. 1442–1446. [CrossRef]
Cramer, O., 1993, “The Variation of the Specific Heat Ratio and the Speed of Sound in Air With Temperature, Pressure, Humidity, and CO2 Concentration,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 93, pp. 2510–2516. [CrossRef]
National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2012, Rika Nenpyo (Chronological Scientific Tables 2013), Maruzen, Japan, p. 383.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Changes in the acoustic properties of water: (a) CW and ρW against T and (b) ZW and dZW/dT against T

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Two models for ultrasonic transmission system (a) without and (b) with thin film between the reflection plate and water

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Experimental setup

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Experimental results. Examples of the waveforms obtained both without and with thin film. The waveform without the film was obtained at 25.7 °C, and the waveforms with the film were recorded at 9.0, 18.3, and 30.1 °C, respectively. (b)–(d) The amplitude spectra in the cases without (φ0) and with the film (φ1) at 9.0, 18.3, and 30.1 °C, respectively. Here, φ0 shown in (b)–(d) was the same and obtained at 25.7 °C. (e) γ versus f.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

(a) γR versus T and (b) ZW versus T

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Temperature profile measured by a thermocouple

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Experimental results of monitoring water temperature. (a) Examples of the waveforms obtained without and with the film at the points m1 to m3 are indicated in Fig. 7. The values of φ1 obtained at m1 to m3 are shown in (b)–(d) along with φ0. (e) γ versus f.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

(a) The values of γR are plotted as a function of tC (scale for ΓR is also shown), (b) Behavior of TU against tC together with that of TT, and (c) TU versus TT

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Experimental results for measuring the acoustic impedance of thin film: (a) Waveforms obtained without and with thin film, (b) φ0, φ1 versus f, and (c) γ versus f

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Comparison of ZW determined by two ways: (a) γR versus T and (b) ZW versus T



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In