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Research Papers

Multisource Data Fusion for Classification of Surface Cracks in Steel Pipes

[+] Author and Article Information
Samir Mustapha

Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Maroun Semaan Faculty of
Engineering and Architecture,
American University of Beirut,
Beirut 1107 2020, Lebanon;
Laboratory of Smart Materials and
Structures (LSMS),
School of Aerospace, Mechanical and
Mechatronic Engineering,
The University of Sydney,
Sydney 2006, New South Wales, Australia
e-mail: sm154@aub.edu.lb

Ali Braytee

Quantum Computation and Intelligent Systems,
University of Technology Sydney,
Sydney 2007, Australia
e-mail: ali.braytee@uts.edu.au

Lin Ye

Professor
Laboratory of Smart Materials and
Structures (LSMS),
School of Aerospace, Mechanical and
Mechatronic Engineering,
The University of Sydney,
Sydney 2006, New South Wales, Australia
e-mail: lin.ye@sydney.edu.au

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received September 9, 2017; final manuscript received December 20, 2017; published online January 24, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Hoon Sohn.

ASME J Nondestructive Evaluation 1(2), 021007 (Jan 24, 2018) (11 pages) Paper No: NDE-17-1093; doi: 10.1115/1.4038862 History: Received September 21, 2017; Revised December 20, 2017

This paper focuses on the development and validation of a robust framework for surface crack detection and assessment in steel pipes based on measured vibration responses collected using a network of piezoelectric (PZT) wafers. The pipe structure considered in this study contained multiple progressive cracks occurring at different locations and with various orientations (along the circumference or length). The fusion of data collected from multiple PZT wafers was investigated based on two approaches: (a) combining the raw data from all sensors before establishing a statistical model for damage classification and (b) combining the features from each sensor after applying a multiclass support vector machine recursive feature elimination (MCSVM-RFE), for dimensionality reduction, and taking the union of discriminative features among the different sources of data. A MCSVM learning algorithm was employed to train the data and generate a statistical classifier. The dataset consisted of ten classes, consisting of nine damage cases and the healthy state. The accuracy of the prediction based on the two fusion approaches resulted in a high accuracy, exceeding 95%, but the number of features needed to enrich the accuracy (95%) differed between the two approaches. Furthermore, the performance and the precision in the prediction of the classifier were evaluated when the data from only a single sensor was used compared with the combined data from all the sensors within the network. Very promising results in the classification of damage were obtained, based on the case study that included multiple damage scenarios with different lengths and orientations.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Multiclass SVM-RFE algorithm [39]

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Fig. 2

Typical measurements after FRF for the benchmark and the nine damage cases: (a) full FRF data and (b) zoom in into the first one thousand features

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Fig. 8

Classification after training using the data from PZT1 ceramics and testing with the rest of the data from PZT1: (a) first ten features, (b) first 100 features, (c) using ten features after applying MCSVM-RFE, and (d) using 100 features after applying MCSVM-RFE

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Fig. 4

Feature fusion based on feature aggregation

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Fig. 5

Schematic of the pipe dimensions and the location of the mounted sensors: (a) side view and (b) top view

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Fig. 6

Typical collected raw signals: (a) impact and (b) response from PZT1

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Fig. 7

Surface cutting of the pipe to simulate different damage severity cases: (a) benchmark, (b) damage case 1, (c) damage case 2, (d) damage case 3, (e) damage case 4, (f) damage case 5, (g) damage case 6, (h) damage case 7, (i) damage case 8, and (j) damage case 9

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Fig. 9

Distribution of the normalized mean values of the signals collected from the three PZT ceramics

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Fig. 10

Classification after training using the data combined from the three PZT ceramics: (a) first ten features, (b) first 100 features, (c) using ten features after applying MCSVM-RFE, and (d) using 100 features after applying MCSVM-RFE

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Fig. 11

Classification after training using the features combined from the three PZT ceramics: (a) first ten features and (b) first 100 features

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