Research Papers

Damage Assessment in Composite Beam Using Infrared Thermography, Optical Sensors, and Terahertz Technique

[+] Author and Article Information
Rohan N. Soman

Institute of Fluid Flow Machinery,
Polish Academy of Sciences,
Fiszera 14,
Gdansk 80-231, Poland
e-mail: rsoman@imp.gda.pl

Katarzyna Majewska

Institute of Fluid Flow Machinery,
Polish Academy of Sciences,
Fiszera 14,
Gdansk 80-231, Poland
e-mail: k.majewska@imp.gda.pl

Magdalena Mieloszyk

Institute of Fluid Flow Machinery,
Polish Academy of Sciences,
Fiszera 14,
Gdansk 80-231, Poland
e-mail: mmieloszyk@imp.gda.pl

Wieslaw Ostachowicz

Institute of Fluid Flow Machinery,
Polish Academy of Sciences,
Fiszera 14,
Gdansk 80-231, Poland
e-mail: wieslaw@imp.gda.pl

Manuscript received October 28, 2017; final manuscript received February 5, 2018; published online April 2, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Hoon Sohn.

ASME J Nondestructive Evaluation 1(3), 031001 (Apr 02, 2018) (19 pages) Paper No: NDE-17-1079; doi: 10.1115/1.4039359 History: Received August 28, 2017; Revised February 05, 2018

Composite materials find wide range of applications due to their high strength-to-weight ratio. Due to this increasing dependence on composite materials, there is a need to study their mechanical behavior in case of damage. There are several extended nondestructive testing (ENDT) and structural health-monitoring (SHM) methods for the assessment of the mechanical properties each with their set of advantages and disadvantages. This paper presents a comparative study of three distinct damage detection methods (infrared thermography (IRT), neutral axis (NA) method based on optical strain sensor measurements, and terahertz spectroscopy) for the detection of delamination and temperature-induced damage in a simple glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) beamlike structure. The terahertz spectroscopy is a specialized technique suitable for detecting deterioration inside the structure but has limited application for in-service performance monitoring. Similarly, the IRT technique in the active domain may be used for in situ monitoring but not in in-service assessment. Both methods allow the visualization of the internal structure and hence allow identification of the type and the extent of damage. Fiber optic sensors (especially fiber Bragg grating (FBG)) due to their small diameter and no need of calibration can be permanently integrated within the sample and applied for continuous dynamic strain measurements. The measured strain is treated as an input for neutral axis (NA) method, which as a damage-sensitive feature may be used for in-service monitoring but gives absolutely no information about the type and extent of damage. The results for damage detection based on proposed comparative studies give a complete description of the analyzed structure.

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Fig. 1

Flowchart for the implementation of KF [30]

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Fig. 2

Beam with geometrical dimensions and marked delamination stages

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Fig. 3

Delamination stages (DI,DII,DIII) and heating area (T)

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Fig. 4

(a) Setup of vibrothermography, (b) part of beam with marked 25 measurements points nearby sensor FBG 3 and delamination placement, and (c) part of beam with marked 24 measurements points nearby sensor FBG 2 or FBG 4 and region of localized heating

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Fig. 5

Characteristic curves for material behavior depending on excitation and time [30]

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Fig. 6

Thermograms achieved for the maximum value of DLs (last frame of IR camera recording) [30]

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Fig. 7

Maps of delaminations stages [30]

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Fig. 8

Thermograms achieved for the maximum value of DLs (last frame of IR camera recording) for both rough and smooth side of the sample

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Fig. 9

Maps for temperature-induced damage for smooth side

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Fig. 10

Maps for temperature-induced damage for rough side

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Fig. 11

THz equipment in reflection mode [30]

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Fig. 12

Comparison of normalized A-scans for intact material and delamination location [30]

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Fig. 13

Comparison of B-scans for three delamination stages: (a) DI, (b) DII, and (c) DIII [30]

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Fig. 14

Comparison of C-scans for three delamination stages: (a) DI, (b) DII, and (c) DIII [30]

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Fig. 15

Delamination DIII (a) A-scan for material at fiber optic sensor location and (b) B-scan [30]

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Fig. 16

Comparison of C-scans for rough sample's surface: (a) before, (b) after filtering, and (c) second layer after filtering, H-discontinuity after heating

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Fig. 17

Comparison of B-scans for (a) left and (b) right side of sensor FBG 2 after heating; H-discontinuity after heating

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Fig. 18

Comparison of A-scans for material without and with a discontinuity after heating

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Fig. 19

Comparison of C-scans for smooth surface: (a) before and (b) after filtering

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Fig. 20

Comparison of B-scans for (a) left and (b) right side of sensor FBG 4 after heating

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Fig. 21

Measured strain under different loading conditions [30]

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Fig. 22

Neutral axis estimate for different loading conditions [30]

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Fig. 23

Estimated NAE for all delamination scenarios

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Fig. 24

Estimated NAE for measurements after heat treatment at different temperatures [39]

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Fig. 25

Measured strain after heat treatment at different temperatures: (a) under 200 g loading and (b) under 100 g loading

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Fig. 26

Root-mean-square difference plot for GW-based measurement using laser Doppler vibrometer after heat treatment at 300 °C




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