Research Papers

Motion Compensation for Industrial Computed Tomography

[+] Author and Article Information
Edward Angus

FP Innovations, Inc.,
Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z2, Canada
e-mail: tedangus@gmail.com

Yuntao An

FP Innovations, Inc.,
Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z2, Canada

Gary S. Schajer

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of British Columbia,
Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received November 11, 2017; final manuscript received February 26, 2018; published online April 13, 2018. Assoc. Editor: K. Elliott Cramer.

ASME J Nondestructive Evaluation 1(3), 031002 (Apr 13, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: NDE-17-1107; doi: 10.1115/1.4039691 History: Received November 11, 2017; Revised February 26, 2018

X-ray computed tomography (CT) is a powerful tool for industrial inspection. However, the harsh conditions encountered in some production environments make accurate motion control difficult, leading to motion artifacts in CT applications. A technique is demonstrated that removes motion artifacts by using an iterative-solver CT reconstruction method that includes a bulk Radon transform shifting step to align radiographic data before reconstruction. The paper uses log scanning in a sawmill as an example application. We show how for a known nominal object density distribution (circular prismatic in the case of a log), the geometric center and radius of the log may be approximated from its radiographs and any motion compensated for. This may then be fed into a previously developed iterative reconstruction CT scheme based on a polar voxel geometry and useful for describing logs. The method is validated by taking the known density distribution of a physical phantom and producing synthetic radiographs in which the axis of object rotation does not coincide with the center of field of view for a hypothetical scanner geometry. Reconstructions could then be made on radiographs that had been corrected and compared to those that had not. This was done for progressively larger offsets between these two axes and the reduction in voxel density vector error studied. For CT applications in industrial settings in which precise motion control is impractical or too costly, radiographic data shifting and scaling based on predictive models for the Radon transform appears to be a simple but effective technique.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Lundahl, C. G. , 2007, “ Optimized Processes in Sawmills,” Ph.D. thesis, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
Rihnnhofer, A. , Petutschnigg, A. , and Andreu, J.-P. , 2003, “ Internal Log Scanning for Optimizing Breakdown,” Comput. Electron. Agric., 41(1–3), pp. 7–21. [CrossRef]
Bhandarkar, S. M. , Luo, X. , Daniels, R. , and Tollner, W. , 2006, “ A Novel Feature-Based Tracking Approach to the Detection, Localization, and 3-D Reconstruction of Internal Defects in Hardwood Logs Using Computer Tomography,” Pattern Anal. Appl., 9(2–3), pp. 155–175. [CrossRef]
Stängle, S. M. , Brüchert, F. , Heikkila, A. , Usenius, T. , Usenius, A. , and Sauter, U. , 2014, “ Potentially Increased Sawmill Yield From Hardwoods Using X-Ray Computed Tomography for Knot Detection,” Ann. Sci., 72(1), pp. 57–65. [CrossRef]
Varas, M. , Maturana, S. , Pascual, R. , Vargas, I. , and Vera, J. , 2014, “ Scheduling Production for a Sawmill: A Robust Optimization Approach,” Int. J. Prod. Econ., 150, pp. 35–51. [CrossRef]
An, Y. , and Schajer, G. S. , 2014, “ Geometry-Based CT Scanner for Measuring Logs in Sawmills,” Comput. Electron. Agric., 105, pp. 66–73. [CrossRef]
Andersen, A. H. , 1989, “ Algebraic Reconstruction in CT from Limited Views,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging, 8(1), pp. 50–55. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Herman, G. T. , and Meyer, L. B. , 1993, “ Algebraic Reconstruction Techniques Can be Made Computationally Efficient [Positron Emission Tomography Application],” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging, 12(3), pp. 600–609. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Epstein, C. L. , 2003, Introduction to the Mathematics of Medical Imaging, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Natterer, F. , 1986, The Mathematics of Computerized Tomography, Wiley, Chichester, UK.
Jian, L. , Litao, L. , Peng, C. , Qi, S. , and Zhifang, W. , 2007, “ Rotating Polar-Coordinate ART Applied in Industrial CT Image Reconstruction,” NDT E Int., 40(4), pp. 333–336. [CrossRef]
Thibaudeau, C. , Fontaine, R. , Leroux, J. D. , and Lecomte, R. , 2013, “ Fully 3D Iterative CT Reconstruction Using Polar Coordinates,” Med. Phys., 40(11), p. 111904. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Andersen, A. H. , and Kak, A. C. , 1984, “ Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (SART): A Superior Implementation of the ART Algorithm,” Ultrason. Imaging, 6(1), pp. 81–94. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Hansen, P. C. , and Saxild-Hansen, M. , 2012, “ AIR Tools—A MATLAB Package of Algebraic Iterative Reconstruction Methods,” J. Comput. Appl. Math., 236(8), pp. 2167–2178. [CrossRef]
Choi, J. H. , Fahrig, R. , Keil, A. , and Maier, A. , 2013, “ Fiducial Marker-Based Correction for Involuntary Motion in Weight-Bearing C-Arm CT Scanning of Knees—Part I: Numerical Model-Based Optimization,” Med. Phys., 40(9), p. 061902. [PubMed]
Kim, J. H. , Nuyts, J. , Kyme, A. , and Fulton, R. , 2015, “ A Rigid Motion Correction Method for Helical Computed Tomography (CT),” Phys. Med. Biol., 60(5), p. 2047. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Kim, J. H. , Nuyts, J. , Kuncic, Z. , and Fulton, R. , 2013, “ The Feasibility of Head Motion Tracking in Helical CT: A Step Toward Motion Correction,” Med. Phys., 40(4), p. 041903. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Zafar, S. , and Faisal, B. , 2011, “ Post Scan Correction of Step, Linear, and Spiral Motion Effects in CT Scans,” Int. J. Comput. Appl., 35(10), pp. 0975–8810. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/2129/f18f3164e85f01eb279d5ecc95a4470d81eb.pdf
Berger, M. , Müller, K. , Aichert, A. , Unberath, M. , Thies, J. , Choi, J. H. , Fahrig, R. , and Maier, A. , 2016, “ Marker-Free Motion Correction in Weight-Bearing Cone-Beam CT of the Knee Joint,” Medical Phys., 43(3), pp. 1235–1248. [CrossRef]
Choi, J. H. , Fahrig, R. , Keil, A. , and Maier, A. , 2014, “ Fiducial Marker-Based Correction for Involuntary Motion in Weight-Bearing C-Arm CT Scanning of Knees—Part II: Experiment,” Med. Phys., 41(6 Pt.1), p. 061902. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Schretter, C. , Neukirchen, C. , Rose, G. , and Bertram, M. , 2009, “ Image-Based Iterative Compensation of Motion Artifacts in Computed Tomography,” Med. Phys., 36(11), pp. 5323–5330. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Biguri, A. , Dosanjh, M. , Hancock, S. , and Soleimani, M. , 2017, “ A General Method for Motion Compensation in X-Ray Computed Tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol., 62(16), pp. 6532–6549. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Zarfowski, D. , 1998, “ Motion Artifact Compensation in CT,” Proc. SPIE, 3338, p. 416.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Source detector geometry

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Polar voxel pattern

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Cylindrical rebinning to equal angular pixel rays

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Log motion causing Radon: (a) scaling and (b) shifting

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Radon transform of a uniform cylinder

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Semi-elliptical Radon transform centroids

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Normalization and scaling of Radon transform: (a) measured data, (b) rebinned data, and (c) scaled data

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Physical phantom: (a,b) hole feature pattern (in), (c) the central 12 “featured” slices, and (d) mounted in the scanner

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Phantom radiograph with active pixel sampling shown in white

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Phantom complete reconstruction: (a) longitudinal slices detailing feature rows, (b) end-on view, and (c) isometric and end-on view of MDF segmentation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Synthetic radiograph frame with active sampling shown

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Log precession of 50% FOVradius during object space rotation, log translation to right

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Degradation of reconstructions with offset: (a) centered log, (b) 1% FOVradius, (c) 5% FOVradius, and (d) 10%FOVradius

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Error of solution versus FOV offset of the phantom

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Normalized reconstruction—offset error of 50% field of view

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Reconstruction of a hemlock log after correction of a 5% offset: (a) Isometric view after correction and (b) before correction



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In