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Research Papers

Three-Dimensional Strain-Based Model for the Severity Characterization of Dented Pipelines

[+] Author and Article Information
Chike Okoloekwe, J.J. Roger Cheng, Samer Adeeb

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering,
University of Alberta,
Edmonton, AB T6G 2R3, Canada

Muntaseer Kainat, Doug Langer, Sherif Hassanien

Enbridge Liquids Pipelines, Inc.,
Edmonton, AB T5J 0H3, Canada

Manuscript received September 17, 2017; final manuscript received April 2, 2018; published online May 14, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Shiro Biwa.

ASME J Nondestructive Evaluation 1(3), 031006 (May 14, 2018) (11 pages) Paper No: NDE-17-1090; doi: 10.1115/1.4040039 History: Received September 17, 2017; Revised April 02, 2018

Oil and gas pipelines traverse long distances and are often subjected to mechanical forces that result in permanent distortion of its geometric cross section in the form of dents. In order to prioritize the repair of dents in pipelines, dents need to be ranked in order of severity. Numerical modeling via finite element analysis (FEA) to rank the dents based on the accumulated localized strain is one approach that is considered to be computationally demanding. In order to reduce the computation time with minimal effect to the completeness of the strain analysis, an approach to the analytical evaluation of strains in dented pipes based on the geometry of the deformed pipe is presented in this study. This procedure employs the use of B-spline functions, which are equipped with second-order continuity to generate displacement functions, which define the surface of the dent. The strains associated with the deformation can be determined by evaluating the derivatives of the displacement functions. The proposed technique will allow pipeline operators to rapidly determine the severity of a dent with flexibility in the choice of strain measure. The strain distribution predicted using the mathematical model proposed is benchmarked against the strains predicted by nonlinear FEA. A good correlation is observed in the strain contours predicted by the analytical and numerical models in terms of magnitude and location. A direct implication of the observed agreement is the possibility of performing concise strain analysis on dented pipes with algorithms relatively easy to implement and not as computationally demanding as FEA.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 2

Schematic representation of the cylindrical coordinate system

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Fig. 1

Strain components acting on a pipe wall [15]

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Fig. 3

Schematic cross-sectional views of the midsurface of a pipe in the deformed and undeformed states

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Fig. 8

Interpolated dent surface of the SD6 model

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Fig. 4

(a) Schematic representation of deformation of the pipe wall in the circumferential direction and (b) a close-up section of the deformed pipe

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Fig. 6

Load–displacement plot of experiment [19] and numerical model

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Fig. 7

Numerical models (SD, FD, and AD)

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Fig. 5

Schematic representation of deformation of the pipe wall in the longitudinal direction

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Fig. 9

SD6-radial displacement contours: (a) numerical model and (b) analytical model

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Fig. 10

SD6-circumferential displacement contours: (a) numerical model and (b) analytical model

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Fig. 18

Plots of the SD models maximum equivalent strain

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Fig. 19

Plots of the FD models maximum equivalent strains

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Fig. 20

Plots of the AD models maximum equivalent strains

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Fig. 16

FD6-PEEQ strain contours: (a) numerical model and (b) analytical model

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Fig. 17

AD6-PEEQ strain contours: (a) numerical model and (b) analytical model

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Fig. 14

SD6-radial strain contours: (a) numerical model and (b) analytical model

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Fig. 15

SD6-PEEQ strain contours: (a) numerical model and (b) analytical model

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Fig. 11

SD6-longitudinal displacement contours: (a) numerical model and (b) analytical model

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Fig. 12

SD6-circumferential displacement contours: (a) numerical model and (b) analytical model

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Fig. 13

SD6-longitudinal strain contours: (a) numerical model and (b) analytical model

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