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Research Papers

Experimental Investigation of Second-Harmonic Lamb Wave Generation in Additively Manufactured Aluminum

[+] Author and Article Information
Benjamin Steven Vien

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
Monash University,
Building 37, Clayton Campus Wellington Road,
Clayton 3168, VIC, Australia
e-mail: ben.vien@monash.edu

Wing Kong Chiu

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
Monash University,
Building 37, Clayton Campus Wellington Road,
Clayton 3168, VIC, Australia
e-mail: wing.kong.chiu@monash.edu

L. R. Francis Rose

Defence Science & Technology Group,
506 Lorimer Street,
Fishermans Bend 3207, VIC, Australia
e-mail: Francis.Rose@dst.defence.gov.au

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received October 26, 2017; final manuscript received February 14, 2018; published online June 18, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Zhongqing Su.

ASME J Nondestructive Evaluation 1(4), 041003 (Jun 18, 2018) (14 pages) Paper No: NDE-17-1101; doi: 10.1115/1.4040390 History: Received October 26, 2017; Revised February 14, 2018

The correlation between the nonlinear acousto-ultrasonic response and the progressive accumulation of fatigue damage is investigated for an additively manufactured aluminum alloy AlSi7Mg and compared with the behavior of a conventional wrought aluminum alloy 6060-T5. A dual transducer and wedge setup is employed to excite a 30-cycle Hann-windowed tone burst at a center frequency of 500 kHz in plate-like specimens that are 7.2 mm thick. This choice of frequency-thickness is designed to excite the symmetric Lamb mode s1, which, in turn, generates a second-harmonic s2 mode in the presence of distributed material nonlinearity. This s1-s2 mode pair satisfies the conditions for internal resonance, thereby leading to a cumulative build-up of amplitude for the second-harmonic s2 mode with increasing propagation distance. Measurements of a nonlinearity parameter β derived from the second-harmonic amplitude are plotted against propagation distance at various fractions of fatigue life under constant amplitude loading, for three different stress levels corresponding to low-cycle fatigue (LCF), high-cycle fatigue (HCF), and an intermediate case. The results show both qualitative and quantitative differences between LCF and HCF, and between the additively manufactured specimens and the wrought alloy. The potential use of this nonlinearity parameter for monitoring the early stages of fatigue damage accumulation, and hence for predicting the residual fatigue life, is discussed, as well as the potential for quality control of the additive manufacturing (AM) process.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Normalized dispersion curves for an aluminum plate: phase velocity versus frequency-thickness product

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Fig. 2

Normalized dispersion curves for an aluminum plate: group velocity versus frequency-thickness product

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Fig. 3

Experimental stress–strain curve of AlSi7Mg and Al6060-T5 specimens

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Fig. 4

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup for dispersion curve and s1 excitation investigations

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Fig. 5

AlSi7Mg specimen dispersion curve wavenumber versus frequency (a) in-plane direction and (b) out-of-plane direction. White lines are antisymmetric Lamb wave modes and black lines are symmetric Lamb wave modes calculated using the program DISPERSE [53].

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Fig. 6

(a) Dispersion curve of the excited signal from the transducer OLYMPUS A414S and wedge at 30--cycle Hann-windowed center frequency 500 kHz over 130 mm for end time 80 μs. (b) Schematic illustration of overall signal and individual modes.

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Fig. 7

Schematic of the experimental setup for material nonlinearity investigation

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Fig. 8

Spectrogram for Al6060-T5 after 250 cycles under loading of σmax ≈191.0 MPa with R = 0.1 at propagating distance 140 mm (d/λ ≈ 11) with (a) 5--cycle, (b) 10--cycle, (c) 20--cycle, and (d) 30--cycle Hann-windowed excitations. Logarithmic-scaled relative to maximum value.

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Fig. 9

Spectrogram for HCF Al6060-T5 after (a) zero, (b) 40,000, (c) 80,000, and (d) 360,000 cycles at propagating distance 140 mm (d/λ ≈ 11). Logarithmic-scaled relative to maximum value.

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Fig. 10

Spectrogram for HCF AlSi7Mg at (a) zero, (b) 1000, (c) 10,000, and (d) 100,000 cycles at propagating distance 140 mm (d/λ ≈ 11). Logarithmic-scaled relative to maximum value.

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Fig. 11

Group velocity of the 1 MHz based on peak to peak measurements

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Fig. 12

s1 and s2 Lamb wave amplitude measurements: (a) 500 kHz and (b) 1 MHz frequency slices as a function of time

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Fig. 13

Spectrogram of AlSi7Mg specimen at different cycle fatigue loading: (a) HCF #1 after 100,000 cycles, (b) HCF #2 after 100,000 cycles, (c) MCF after 10,000 cycles, and (d) LCF after 300 cycles at propagating distance 140 mm (d/λ ≈ 11). Logarithmic-scaled relative to maximum value.

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Fig. 14

Aluminum 6060-T5 specimen HCF (σmax ≈ 138.9 MPa): measured acoustic nonlinearity parameter versus propagating distance relative to incident s1 wavelength (d/λ) for different fractions of fatigue life

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Fig. 15

Aluminum 6060-T5 specimen MCF (σmax ≈ 191.0 MPa): measured acoustic nonlinearity parameter versus propagating distance relative to incident s1 wavelength (d/λ) for different fractions of fatigue life

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Fig. 16

Aluminum 6060-T5 specimen LCF (σmax≈208.3 MPa): measured acoustic nonlinearity parameter versus propagating distance relative to incident s1 wavelength (d/λ) for different fractions of fatigue life

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Fig. 17

AlSi7Mg specimen HCF #1 (σmax≈123.4 MPa): measured acoustic nonlinearity parameter versus propagating distance relative to incident s1 wavelength (d/λ) for different fractions of fatigue life

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Fig. 18

AlSi7Mg specimen HCF #2 (σmax≈138.9 MPa): measured acoustic nonlinearity parameter versus propagating distance relative to incident s1 wavelength (d/λ) for different fractions of fatigue life

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Fig. 19

AlSi7Mg specimen MCF (σmax ≈ 170.36 MPa): measured acoustic nonlinearity parameter versus propagating distance relative to incident s1 wavelength (d/λ) for different fractions of fatigue life

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Fig. 20

AlSi7Mg specimen LCF (σmax ≈ 225.7 MPa): measured acoustic nonlinearity parameter versus propagating distance relative to incident s1 wavelength (d/λ) for different fractions of fatigue life

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Fig. 21

Aluminum 6060-T5 specimen: normalized acoustic nonlinearity parameter relative to undamaged state as a function of fatigue life at propagating distance 140 mm (d/λ ≈ 11) for different fatigue stress loading at R = 0.1

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Fig. 22

AlSi7Mg specimen: normalized acoustic nonlinearity parameter relative to undamaged state as a function of fatigue life at propagating distance 140 mm (d/λ ≈ 11) for different fatigue stress loading at R = 0.1

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Fig. 23

Maximum experimental measured acoustic nonlinearity parameter against the ratio of stress range and yield strength for R = 0.1

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