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Research Papers

Detection of Flat-Bottom Holes in Conductive Composites Using Active Microwave Thermography

[+] Author and Article Information
Ali Mirala

Applied Microwave Nondestructive Testing
Laboratory (AMNTL),
Electrical and Computer Engineering Department,
Missouri University of Science and Technology,
210 Engineering Research Laboratory,
500 W. 16th Street,
Rolla MO 65409-0040
e-mail: smq3b@mst.edu

Ali Foudazi

Applied Microwave Nondestructive Testing
Laboratory (AMNTL),
Electrical and Computer Engineering Department,
Missouri University of Science and Technology,
210 Engineering Research Laboratory,
500 W. 16th Street,
Rolla, MO 65409-0040
e-mail: afz73@mst.edu

Mohammad Tayeb Ghasr

Applied Microwave Nondestructive Testing
Laboratory (AMNTL),
Electrical and Computer Engineering Department,
Missouri University of Science and Technology,
210 Engineering Research Laboratory,
500 W. 16th Street,
Rolla, MO 65409-0040
e-mail: mtg7w6@mst.edu

Kristen M. Donnell

Electrical and Computer Engineering Department,
Missouri University of Science and Technology,
301 W. 16th Street,
Rolla, MO 65409-0040
e-mail: kmdgfd@mst.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received April 12, 2018; final manuscript received June 20, 2018; published online July 24, 2018. Assoc. Editor: K. Elliott Cramer.

ASME J Nondestructive Evaluation 1(4), 041005 (Jul 24, 2018) (7 pages) Paper No: NDE-18-1018; doi: 10.1115/1.4040673 History: Received April 12, 2018; Revised June 20, 2018

Active microwave thermography (AMT) is an integrated nondestructive testing (NDT) technique that utilizes a microwave-based thermal excitation and subsequent thermal measurement. AMT has shown potential for applications in the transportation, infrastructure, and aerospace industries. This paper investigates the potential of AMT for detection of defects referred to as flat-bottom holes (FBHs) in composites with high electrical conductivity such as carbon fiber-based composites. Specifically, FBHs of different dimensions machined in a carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite sheet are considered. Simulation and measurement results illustrate the potential for AMT as a NDT tool for inspection of CFRP structures. In addition, a dimensional analysis of detectable defects is provided including a radius-to-depth ratio threshold for successful detection.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Geometry of the simulated model

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Fig. 9

Thermal contrast for different lift-offs and polarizations

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Fig. 7

Thermal profile images for FBH with r = 20 mm and d = 2 mm captured at different instants of time

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Fig. 4

Thermal contrast as a function of frequency for different microwave excitation powers

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Fig. 2

Thermal contrast versus FBH depth for different radii obtained through numerical analysis and CST MPS simulations

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Fig. 10

Signal-to-noise ratio for three FHBs with dimensions given in the figure legend

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Fig. 8

Thermal contrast as a function of time for FBHs of (a) r = 20 mm and different depths and (b) d = 2 mm and different radii

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Fig. 11

Signal-to-noise ratio image for FBH with r = 20 mm and d = 2 mm at different instants of time

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Fig. 6

Active microwave thermography measurement setup

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Fig. 5

Photograph of the CFRP sample with 9 (machined) FBHs with different radii and depths

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Fig. 3

Thermal contrast isothermal contours for different radii and depths of FBHs

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