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Research Papers

Effects of Gamma Radiation on Resonant and Antiresonant Characteristics of Piezoelectric Wafer Active Sensors

[+] Author and Article Information
Mohammad Faisal Haider

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of South Carolina,
300 Main Street, Room A222,
Columbia, SC 29208
e-mail: haiderm@email.sc.edu

Victor Giurgiutiu

Professor
Fellow ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of South Carolina,
300 Main Street, Room A222,
Columbia, SC 29208
e-mail: victorg@sc.edu

Bin Lin

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of South Carolina,
300 Main Street, Room A222,
Columbia, SC 29208
e-mail: linbin@cec.sc.edu

Lingyu Yu

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of South Carolina,
300 Main Street, Room A222,
Columbia, SC 29208
e-mail: yu3@cec.sc.edu

Poh-Sang Lam

Savannah River National Laboratory,
Aiken, SC 29808
e-mail: ps.lam@srnl.doe.gov

Christopher Verst

Savannah River National Laboratory,
Aiken, SC 29808
e-mail: Christopher.Verst@srs.gov

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received March 1, 2018; final manuscript received July 31, 2018; published online September 17, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Kara Peters. This work is in part a work of the U.S. Government. ASME disclaims all interest in the U.S. Government's contributions.

ASME J Nondestructive Evaluation 2(1), 011001 (Sep 17, 2018) (12 pages) Paper No: NDE-18-1010; doi: 10.1115/1.4041068 History: Received March 01, 2018; Revised July 31, 2018

This paper presents gamma radiation effects on resonant and antiresonant characteristics of piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) for structural health monitoring (SHM) applications to nuclear-spent fuel storage facilities. The irradiation test was done in a Co-60 gamma irradiator. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and Gallium Orthophosphate (GaPO4) PWAS transducers were exposed to 225 kGy gamma radiation dose. First, 2 kGy of total radiation dose was achieved with slower radiation rate at 0.1 kGy/h for 20; h then the remaining radiation dose was achieved with accelerated radiation rate at 1.233 kGy/h for 192 h. The total cumulative radiation dose of 225 kGy is equivalent to 256 years of operation in nuclear-spent fuel storage facilities. Electro-mechanical impedance and admittance (EMIA) signatures were measured after each gamma radiation exposure. Radiation-dependent logarithmic sensitivity of PZT-PWAS in-plane and thickness modes resonance frequency ((fR)/(logeRd)) was estimated as 0.244 kHz and 7.44 kHz, respectively; the logarithmic sensitivity of GaPO4-PWAS in-plane and thickness modes resonance frequency was estimated as 0.0629 kHz and 2.454 kHz, respectively. Therefore, GaPO4-PWAS EMIA spectra show more gamma radiation endurance than PZT-PWAS. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction method (XRD) was used to investigate the microstructure and crystal structure of PWAS transducers. From SEM and XRD results, it can be inferred that there is no significant variation in the morphology, the crystal structure, and grain size before and after the irradiation exposure.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Simple electro-mechanical system of PWAS under electric excitation (a) in-plane vibration and (b) thickness vibration [3]

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Fig. 2

Experimental procedure flowchart for slow radiation test at 0.1 kGy/h

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Fig. 3

Experimental setup for EMIA measurement using impedance analyzer

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Fig. 4

Typical EMIA spectra of a circular PWAS: (a) impedance spectra (antiresonance phenomenon) (b) admittance spectra (resonance phenomenon)

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Fig. 5

((a) and (b)) Resonance frequency and amplitude for radially vibrating PZT-PWAS; ((c) and (d)) resonance frequency and amplitude for thickness vibrating PZT-PWAS, with cumulative gamma radiation dose

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Fig. 6

Electrical capacitance (measured at 1 kHz) of PZT-PWAS with cumulative radiation dose

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Fig. 7

((a) and (b)) Antiresonance frequency and amplitude for radially vibrating PZT-PWAS; ((c) and (d)) antiresonance frequency and amplitude for thickness vibrating PZT-PWAS, with cumulative gamma radiation dose

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Fig. 8

((a) and (b)) Resonance frequency and amplitude for radially vibrating GaPO4 PWAS; ((c) and (d)) resonance frequency and amplitude for thickness vibrating GaPO4 PWAS, with cumulative gamma radiation dose

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Fig. 9

Electrical capacitance (measured at 1 kHz) of GaPO4-PWAS with cumulative radiation dose

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Fig. 10

((a) and (b)) Antiresonance frequency and amplitude for radially vibrating GaPO4 PWAS; ((c) and (d)) antiresonance frequency and amplitude for thickness vibrating GaPO4 PWAS, with cumulative gamma radiation dose

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Fig. 11

Scanning electron microscope micrograph of cross section of Ag/PZT/Ag PWAS transducer (a) before irradiation and (b) after accelerated radiation of 225 kGy

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Fig. 12

Scanning electron microscope micrograph of cross section of Pt/GaPO4/Pt PWAS transducer (a) before irradiation and (b) after accelerated radiation of 225 kGy

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Fig. 13

X-ray diffraction method of PZT-PWAS transducer (a) before irradiation and (b) after accelerated radiation of 225 kGy

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Fig. 14

X-ray diffraction method of GaPO4-PWAS transducer (a) before irradiation and (b) after accelerated radiation of 225 kGy

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