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Research Papers

Regenerated Fiber Bragg Grating Sensing System for Ultrasonic Detection in a 900 °C Environment

[+] Author and Article Information
Feng-ming Yu

Institute of Industrial Science,
The University of Tokyo,
4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku,
Tokyo 153-8505, Japan
e-mails: houmei@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp;
yufengming1987@gmail.com

Yoji Okabe

Institute of Industrial Science,
The University of Tokyo,
4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku,
Tokyo 153-8505, Japan
e-mail: okabey@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received June 21, 2018; final manuscript received December 9, 2018; published online January 14, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Wieslaw Ostachowicz.

ASME J Nondestructive Evaluation 2(1), 011006 (Jan 14, 2019) (8 pages) Paper No: NDE-18-1023; doi: 10.1115/1.4042259 History: Received June 21, 2018; Revised December 09, 2018

Heat-resistant composites, such as ceramic matrix composites and heat-resistant carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRPs), are expected to be used for aircraft engine parts. The development of reliable heat-resistant composite materials requires the use of nondestructive test techniques for evaluating the progression of damage during material testing at elevated temperatures. Furthermore, structural health monitoring (SHM) technologies that operate under harsh environments are expected to be realized for monitoring heat-resistant composite structures. To provide potential solutions for the establishment of such technologies, this research developed a heat-resistant ultrasonic sensor based on a regenerated fiber-optic Bragg grating (RFBG). First, we fabricated an RFBG by annealing a normal fiber-optic Bragg gratings (FBG) sensor. Because the RFBG exhibits high heat resistance at temperatures of 1000 °C, the sensor achieved stable ultrasonic detection at an elevated temperature. In addition, we attempted to use a π-phase-shifted FBG (PSFBG) as the seed grating to construct an ultrasonic sensor with enhanced performance. As a result, the regenerated phase-shifted fiber-optic Bragg grating (R(PS)FBG) sensor possessed a very short effective gauge length and achieved a broad frequency response to ultrasonic waves with frequencies greater than 1.5 MHz. The broadband detectability enables the R(PS)FBG sensor to acquire an accurate response to ultrasonic waves. Hence, we believe the regenerated Bragg grating-based ultrasonic sensors can contribute to establishing an effective nondestructive evaluation method for composite materials, thereby enabling a structural health monitoring system for a composite-made structure operating under extreme high-temperature environments.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Reflection spectra collected during the formation and growth of the regenerated grating

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Fig. 2

Temperature history of the annealing process and peak reflection during Bragg grating regeneration: (a) RFBG and (b) R(PS)FBG

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Fig. 3

(a) Comparison of the reflection spectra between the RFBG and the FBG and (b) Comparison of the reflection spectra between the R(PS)FBG and the PSFBG

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Fig. 4

Verification of the heat resistance of (a) the R(PS)FBG and (b) the RFBG

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Fig. 5

Schematic of the sensing system using the RFBG and the R(PS)FBG

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Fig. 6

(a) Experimental setup for ultrasonic detection using the RFBG and the R(PS)FBG under a high-temperature environment and (b) propagation behavior of an ultrasonic wave in the optical fiber-based ultrasonic waveguide

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Fig. 7

The inputted Chirp ultrasonic wave with a frequency bandwidth from 10 kHz to 2 MHz

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Fig. 8

The response of the PSFBG and FBG sensors to a chirped ultrasonic input signal: (a) temporal waveforms and (b) the corresponding Fourier transform results

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Fig. 9

The dispersive curve of the basic longitudinal mode propagating in the thin cylinder-shaped optical fiber: (a) the phase velocity and (b) wavelength as functions of the frequency

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Fig. 10

The response of the R(PS)FBG and RFBG sensors to a chirped ultrasonic input signal: (a) temporal waveforms and (b) the corresponding Fourier transform results

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Fig. 11

Ultrasonic waves received by the R(PS)FBG and RFBG sensors at 100–900 °C and their Fourier transform results: (a) R(PS)FBG, (b) R(PS)FBG, (c) RFBG, and (d) RFBG

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