This work provides a consistent and systematic framework for the gradient approach in coupled damage-plasticity that enables one to better understand the effects of material inhomogeneity on the macroscopic behavior and the material instabilities. The idea of multiple scale effects is made more general and complete by introducing damage and plasticity internal state variables and the corresponding gradients at both the macro and mesoscale levels. The development of evolution equations for plasticity and damage is treated in a similar mathematical approach and formulation since both address defects such as dislocations for the former and cracks/voids for the later.

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