Two-dimensional steady incompressible turbulent flow over a backward-facing step was calculated using equal-order and penalty function Emite element methods. The standard k–ε turbulence model with wall functions was applied. Results from both of the methods for pressure-velocity coupling look similar to each other. The greatest discrepancy was observed for the velocity vector plots behind the step. While the equal order method showed physically correct behavior of velocity near the walls, the penalty function method gave oscillations for the velocity component parallel to the wall.
Turbulent Flow Over a Backward-Facing Step Using Penalty and Equal-Order Finite Element Methods
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Akberov, R, Pepper, DW, & Chen, Y. "Turbulent Flow Over a Backward-Facing Step Using Penalty and Equal-Order Finite Element Methods." Proceedings of the ASME 2002 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition. Heat Transfer, Volume 6. New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. November 17–22, 2002. pp. 129-135. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/IMECE2002-39399
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