With the rapid development and industrialization of hydrogen fuel cells and electric vehicles, safe and efficient hydrogen storage technology has become the main bottleneck for the development of hydrogen energy. As an important supporting facility of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, the hydrogen storage mode adopted by hydrogen refueling station is mainly high-pressure hydrogen storage. Hydrogen storage pressure vessel as the main core equipment of hydrogen refueling station, its storage pressure is high, the hydrogen is flammable and explosive, has the potential leakage and explosion risk, its safety is particularly important. At present, there is still a lack of relevant research on the mechanical properties of materials used in hydrogen storage vessels in high-pressure hydrogen atmosphere in China, and there are still huge safety risks in the design and calculation of hydrogen storage pressure vessels in hydrogen refueling stations. So, this paper summarizes the characteristics and typical failure modes of hydrogen storage vessels in hydrogen refueling stations, give the assessment methods for each failure mode and the test scheme for measuring the materials mechanical properties data in hydrogen atmosphere used in the failure assessment. The design method based on the failure mode for hydrogen storage pressure vessels in hydrogen refueling stations is proposed in the paper.