Stents implanted to treat renal artery stenosis are vulnerable to stent fracture and thrombosis [1–3]. We hypothesize that the motion of the renal arteries during respiration is a possible cause of stent fracture or in-stent restenosis. However, the respiratory motion of the renal arteries and the kidneys is poorly understood. Using magnetic resonance imaging data we previously quantified the two-dimensional deformation of the renal arteries and demonstrated that respiration-induced kidney motion results in vessel bending near the ostia [4]. In this study we quantified the complex three-dimensional motion of the renal arteries and kidneys over the respiratory cycle using magnetic resonance angiography data and imaged-based modeling methods. We provide quantitative information on anatomic changes to the renal arteries that may provide data to design improved pre-clinical, benchtop tests for renal stents.

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