The clinical need for alternatives to autologous vein and artery grafts for small-diameter vascular reconstruction have led researches to a tissue-engineering approach. Bioengineered vascular grafts provide a mechanically robust conduit for blood flow while implanted autologous cells remodel the construct to form a fully functional vessel [1]. A typical tissue-engineering approach involves fabricating a vascular scaffold from natural or synthetic materials, seeding the lumen of a vessel with endothelial cells (EC) and the vessel wall with smooth muscle cells or fibroblasts to mimic the functional properties of a native vessel. The cell-seeded vascular scaffold is then preconditioned in vitro using a pulsatile bioreactor to mimic in vivo conditions to enhance vessel maturation before implantation (Fig. 1).

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