Induction of drug-free permanent organ accommodation is the ultimate goal of transplant therapy. Current pharmacological agents, however, are non-specific in their actions and generally do not confer immunological tolerance. Inhibitors of T cell receptor signaling (tacrolimus and cyclosporine A) represent the mainstay in transplant management. These agents exert their therapeutic effects by dampening the activities of all T cells. Chronic exposure to these agents increases the risk of developing opportunistic infections and malignancies. Given that more than 20,000 Americans undergo organ transplantations each year, there is an urgent need to develop specific therapies to mitigate graft rejection and create conditions conducive for long-term transplant accommodation.

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