Mathematical modeling of mass, momentum, heat, and species transport phenomena occurring during solidification of metal alloys is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the incorporation of the effects of the solid structure and the interactions between the solid and liquid phases on a microscopic scale into a (macroscopic) model of the transport phenomena occurring at the system scale. Both columnar and equiaxed growth structures, as well as laminar convection of liquid and solid crystals are considered. The macroscopic conservation equations are introduced via a volume averaging approach and commonly made simplifications are examined. Basic constitutive relations for the phase interactions occurring in alloy solidification are presented. Recent progress in including nucleation, microsegregation, undercooling and other microscopic phenomena in the macroscopic equations is reviewed. The specific areas where future theoretical and experimental research is needed are identified.

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