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Research Papers

Vibration-Based Healing Assessment of an Internally Fixated Femur

[+] Author and Article Information
Wong Kong Chiu

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
Monash University,
Wellington Rd,
Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia
e-mail: wing.kong.chiu@monash.edu

Benjamin Steven Vien

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
Monash University,
Wellington Rd,
Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia
e-mail: ben.vien@monash.edu

Matthias Russ

The Alfred Hospital,
Commercial Road,
Prahran, VIC 3181, Australia;
The National Trauma Research Institute, The Alfred Hospital,
Commercial Road,
Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia;
Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences,
Monash University,
The Alfred Hospital,
Commercial Road,
Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia
e-mail: M.Russ@alfred.org.au

Mark Fitzgerald

The Alfred Hospital,
Commercial Road,
Prahran, VIC 3181, Australia;
The National Trauma Research Institute, The Alfred Hospital,
Commercial Road,
Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia;
Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences,
Monash University,
The Alfred Hospital,
Commercial Road,
Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia;
Trauma Service,
The Alfred Hospital,
Commercial Road,
Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia
e-mail: M.Fitzgerald@alfred.org.au

Manuscript received August 31, 2018; final manuscript received March 18, 2019; published online April 23, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Yuris Dzenis.

ASME J Nondestructive Evaluation 2(2), 021003 (Apr 23, 2019) (11 pages) Paper No: NDE-18-1033; doi: 10.1115/1.4043276 History: Received August 31, 2018; Accepted March 18, 2019

The current techniques in assessing the healing of a fixated fractured long bone, which include X-ray, computed tomography (CT), and manual manipulation, are qualitative and its accuracy depends on the surgeon's experience. A lack of a robust and quantitative monitoring method of fractured bone healing limits the survival of orthopedic implants and the ability to accurately predict and prevent fixation failure and complications. This paper experimentally and computationally investigates the efficacy and the potential application of a vibration-based quantitative monitoring methodology. This nonintrusive technique incorporates the cross-spectra response of externally placed sensors located remotely from the fractured region. In this study, the test specimens are composite femurs fixated with an intramedullary nail fixation system and the epoxy adhesive applied in the osteotomized region is used to simulate the healing process. Epoxies with a 30-min and 2 h gel time are used separately to investigate the sensitivity of this healing assessment technique. The findings highlight the key vibrational modes to establish the state of healing and the quantification evaluation of healing of fixated femurs based on a formulated healing index is also presented. This efficacy study seeks to verify the viability of this external measurement technique for human health monitoring and the future development of healing devices.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Numerical model setup of the femur treated with an IM nail

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Fig. 2

Possible mode shapes of the nonfractured fixated femur with an IM nail osteotomized region stiffness at 100% (no fracture): (a) mode 1, 44.5 Hz; (b) mode 2, 48.5 Hz; (c) mode 3, 333.4 Hz; (d) mode 4, 338.8 Hz; and (e) mode 5, 428.9 Hz. The deformed mode shape is shown in red, while the undeformed shape is gray.

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Fig. 3

Mode shapes associated with a fractured femur treated with an IM nail with osteotomized region stiffness at 0%: (a) mode 1, 33.1 Hz and (b) mode 5, 138.6 Hz. The deformed mode shape is shown in red, while the undeformed shape is gray.

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Fig. 4

Sensor placements and the excitation point on numerical model

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Fig. 5

Cross-spectrum between S1 and S2 (finite element results): (a) 0%, (b) 1%, (c) 10%, and (d) 100% osteotomized region elastic modulus relative to the femur

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Fig. 6

Experimental composite bone specimen treated with an IM nail

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Fig. 7

Development of cross-spectrum and coherence function resulting from simulated healing using 30-min epoxy (experiment #1) at (a) 0 min, (b) 18 min, (c) 35 min, (d) 75 min, (e) 115 min, and (f) 155 min

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Fig. 8

Development of cross-spectrum and coherence function resulting from simulated healing using 30-min epoxy (experiment #2) at (a) 0 min, (b) 18 min, (c) 35 min, (d) 75 min, (e) 115 min, and (f) 155 min

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Fig. 9

Development of cross-spectrum and coherence function resulting from simulated healing using 2 h epoxy (experiment #3) at (a) 0 min, (b) 60 min, (c) 120 min, (d) 180 min, (e) 240 min, and (f) 300 min

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Fig. 10

Expected healing index profile [15]

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Fig. 11

Healing index from simulated healing (30-min epoxy): (a) experiment #1 and (b) experiment #2

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Fig. 12

Healing index from simulated healing (2 h epoxy)

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Fig. 13

Healing index with time-axis normalized with epoxy gel time

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