The effects of location of aponeurotomy on the muscular mechanics of extramuscularly connected muscle were assessed. Using finite element modeling, extensor digitorum longus muscle of the rat was studied for the effects of aponeurotomy performed in each of three locations on the proximal aponeurosis: (1) a proximal location (case P), (2) an intermediate location (case I), and (3) a distal location (case D). Proximo-distal force differences were more pronounced for more proximal aponeurotomy. The location also affected proximally and distally assessed muscle length-force characteristics: (1) Muscle optimum length and active slack length shifted differentially to higher lengths, increasing slack to optimum length range (for D to P: distally by 15–44%; proximally by 2–6%). (2) Muscle forces decreased at all lengths (e.g., for D to P distal optimal and proximal optimal of intact values, respectively). Increased length range and force decreases were highest for case P, as were effects on muscle geometry: gap length within the proximal aponeurosis; decreased proximal fiber population pennation angle. Parallel, but not serial, heterogeneity of sarcomere length was highest in case P: (a) For the distal fiber population, sarcomere shortening was highest; (b) for the proximal population, sarcomeres were longer. It is concluded that if aponeurotomy is performed closer to the tendon, intended surgical effects are more pronounced. For bi-articular muscle, mechanics of both proximal and distal joints will be affected, which should be considered in selecting the location of aponeurotomy for optimal results at both joints.
Assessment by Finite Element Modeling Indicates That Surgical Intramuscular Aponeurotomy Performed Closer to the Tendon Enhances Intended Acute Effects in Extramuscularly Connected Muscle
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Yucesoy, C. A., and Huijing, P. A. (December 10, 2008). "Assessment by Finite Element Modeling Indicates That Surgical Intramuscular Aponeurotomy Performed Closer to the Tendon Enhances Intended Acute Effects in Extramuscularly Connected Muscle." ASME. J Biomech Eng. February 2009; 131(2): 021012. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.3005156
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