Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is an emerging solid-state fabrication process that can be used for layered creation of solid metal structures. In UAM, ultrasonic energy is used to induce plastic deformation and nascent surface formation at the interface between layers of metal foil, thus creating bonding between the layers. UAM is an inherently stochastic process with a number of unknown facets that can affect the bond quality. In order to take advantage of the unique benefits of UAM, it is necessary to understand the relationship between manufacturing parameters (machine settings) and bond quality by quantifying the mechanical strength of UAM builds. This research identifies the optimum combination of processing parameters, including normal force, oscillation amplitude, weld speed, and number of bilayers for the manufacture of commercially pure, grade 1 aluminum composites. A multifactorial experiment was designed to study the effect of the above factors on the outcome measures ultimate shear strength and ultimate transverse tensile strength. Generalized linear models were used to study the statistical significance of each factor. For a given factor, the operating levels were selected to cover the full range of machine capabilities. Transverse shear and transverse tensile experiments were conducted to quantify the bond strength of the builds. Optimum levels of each parameter were established based on statistical contrast trend analyses. The results from these analyses indicate that high mechanical strength can be achieved with a process window bounded by a 1500 N normal force, oscillation amplitude, about 42 mm/s weld speed, and two bilayers. The effects of each process parameter on bond strength are discussed and explained.
Statistical Characterization of Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing Ti/Al Composites
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Hopkins, C. D., Dapino, M. J., and Fernandez, S. A. (September 29, 2010). "Statistical Characterization of Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing Ti/Al Composites." ASME. J. Eng. Mater. Technol. October 2010; 132(4): 041006. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4002073
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