Deformation and fracture behavior of several formable automotive aluminum alloys and steels have been assessed experimentally at room temperature through standard uniaxial tension, plane strain tension, and hemispherical dome tests. These materials exhibit the same deformation sequence: normally uniform elongation followed by diffuse necking, then localized necking in the form of crossed intense-shear bands, and finally fracture. The difference among these alloys lies primarily with respect to the point at which damage (i.e., voiding) starts. Damage develops earlier in the steel samples, although in all cases very little damage is observed prior to the onset of shear instability. A unified finite element model has been developed to reproduce this characteristic deformation sequence. Instability is triggered by the introduction of microstructural inhomogeneities rather than through the commonly utilized Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman damage model. The predicted specimen shape change, shear band characteristics, distribution of strain, and the fracture modes for steels and aluminum alloys are all in good agreement with the experimental observations.
A Unified Finite Element Approach for the Study of Postyielding Deformation Behavior of Formable Sheet Materials
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Duan, X., Jain, M., Metzger, D. R., and Wilkinson, D. S. (October 17, 2006). "A Unified Finite Element Approach for the Study of Postyielding Deformation Behavior of Formable Sheet Materials." ASME. J. Pressure Vessel Technol. November 2007; 129(4): 689–697. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2767360
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