Simulation of cable system responses to frequency domain reflectometry (FDR) tests can be instrumental to understanding these tests and the influence of various cable anomalies on test signatures. Reflectometry simulations are based upon a finite element representation of the cable conductor and insulation to produce an S-parameter at each evaluated frequency. The aggregate collection of cable S-parameters can simulate influence on a test signal injected into the simulation network and can show reflections caused by cable anomaly impedance changes. Such a digital twin simulation was developed and examined for influence of both the test simulation parameters and relative influence of cable anomalies including thermal aging damage, water or moisture exposure on outside jacket, water or moisture ingress exposure to conductor through damaged cable, and other cable insulation anomalies.

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